The Ionized Absorber and Nuclear Environment of IRAS 13349+2438: Multi-wavelength insights from coordinated Chandra HETGS, HST STIS, HET, and Spitzer IRS
Julia C. Lee (1,2), Gerard Kriss (3,4), Susmita Chakravorty (1,2), Farid Rahoui (1,2), Andrew J. Young (5), William N. Brandt (6,7), Dean C. Hines (3), Patrick M. Ogle (8), Christopher S. Reynolds (9)
We present results from a coordinated IR-to-X-ray spectral campaign of the QSO IRAS 13349+2438. Optical spectra reveal extreme Eigenvector-1 characteristics, but the H-beta line width argues against a NLS1 classification; we refine z=0.10853 based on [O III]. We estimate a BH mass=10^9 Msun using 2 independent methods (H-beta line width & SED fits). Blue-shifted absorption (-950km/s & -75km/s) is seen for the 1st time in STIS UV spectra from Ly-alpha, NV, & CIV. The higher velocity UV lines are coincident with the lower-ionisation (xi~1.6) X-ray warm absorber lines. A dusty multiple ionization absorber blueshifted by 700-900km/s is required to fit the X-ray data. Theoretical models comparing different ionising SEDs reveal that a UV-inclusive (i.e., the accretion disc) ionising continuum strongly impacts conclusions for the thermodynamic stability of the warm absorber. Specific to IRAS13349, an Xray-UV ionising SED favors a continuous distribution of ionisation states in a smooth flow (this paper), versus discrete clouds in pressure equilibrium (work by others where UV is omitted). Direct dust detections are seen in both the IR: PAH emission at (7.7 & 11.3)micron which may also be blended with forsterite, and (10 & 18)micron silicate emission, and X-rays: iron dust with a dust-to-gas ratio > 90%. We develop a geometrical model whereby the QSO nuclear region is viewed through the upper atmosphere of an obscuring torus. This sight line is obscured by dust that blocks a direct view of the UV/optical emission region but is largely transparent in X-rays since the gas is ionised. In our model, 20% of the intrinsic UV/optical continuum is scattered into our sight line by the far wall of an obscuring torus. An additional 2.4% of the direct light, which likely dominates the UV emission, is Thomson-scattered into our line-of-sight by another off-plane component of highly ionized gas.
Empirical predictions for (sub-)millimeter line and continuum deep fields
Elisabete da Cunha (MPIA), Fabian Walter (MPIA), Roberto Decarli (MPIA), Frank Bertoldi (AIfA Bonn), Chris Carilli (NRAO), Emanuele Daddi (CEA Saclay), David Elbaz (CEA Saclay), Rob Ivison (ROE, Univ. Edinburgh), Roberto Maiolino (Univ. Cambridge), Dominik Riechers (Cornell Univ.), Hans-Walter Rix (MPIA), Mark Sargent (CEA Saclay), Ian Smail (Durham Univ.), Axel Weiss (MPIfR)
Modern (sub-)millimeter/radio interferometers will enable us to measure the dust and molecular gas emission from galaxies that have luminosities lower than the Milky Way, out to high redshifts and with unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity. This will provide new constraints on the star formation properties and gas reservoir in galaxies throughout cosmic times through dedicated deep field campaigns targeting the CO/[CII] lines and dust continuum emission. In this paper, we present empirical predictions for such (sub-)millimeter line and continuum deep fields. We base these predictions on the deepest available optical/near-infrared ACS and NICMOS data on the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. Using a physically-motivated spectral energy distribution model, we fit the observed optical/near-infrared emission of 13,099 galaxies with redshifts up to z=5, and obtain median likelihood estimates of their stellar mass, star formation rate, dust attenuation and dust luminosity. We derive statistical constraints on the dust emission in the infrared and (sub-)millimeter which are consistent with the observed optical/near-infrared emission in terms of energy balance. This allows us to estimate, for each galaxy, the (sub-)millimeter continuum flux densities in several ALMA, PdBI/NOEMA and JVLA bands. Using empirical relations between the observed CO/[CII] line luminosities and the infrared luminosity, we infer the flux of the CO(1-0) and [CII] lines from the estimated infrared luminosity of each galaxy in our sample. We then predict the fluxes of higher CO transition lines CO(2-1) to CO(7-6) bracketing two extreme gas excitation scenarios. We use our predictions to discuss possible deep field strategies with ALMA. The predictions presented in this study will serve as a direct benchmark for future deep field campaigns in the (sub-)millimeter regime.