Monday 7/16/2012

Spectrally resolved CII emission in M~33 ({\tt HerM33es}): Physical conditions and kinematics around BCLMP 691

J. Braine, P. Gratier, C. Kramer, F. P. Israel, F. van der Tak, B. Mookerjea, M. Boquien, F. Tabatabaei, P. van der Werf, C. Henkel
(Submitted on 13 Jul 2012)

This work presents high spectral resolution observations of the \CII\ line at 158 \micron, one of the major cooling lines of the interstellar medium, taken with the HIFI heterodyne spectrometer on the Herschel satellite. In BCLMP 691, an \HII\ region far north (3.3 kpc) in the disk of M 33, the \CII\ and CO line profiles show similar velocities within $0.5 \kms$, while the \HI\ line velocities are systematically shifted towards lower rotation velocities by $\sim 5\kms$. Observed at the same $12″$ angular resolution, the \CII\ lines are broader than those of CO by about 50% but narrower than the \HI\ lines. The \CII\ line to far-infrared continuum ratio suggests a photoelectric heating efficiency of 1.1%. The data, together with published models indicate a UV field $G_0 \sim 100$ in units of the solar neighborhood value, a gas density $n_H \sim 1000 \cc$, and a gas temperature $T\sim 200$ K. Adopting these values, we estimate the C$^+$ column density to be $N_{C^+} \approx 1.3 \times 10^{17} \cmt$. The \CII\ emission comes predominantly from the warm neutral region between the \HII\ region and the cool molecular cloud behind it. From published abundances, the inferred C$^+$ column corresponds to a hydrogen column density of $N_H \sim 2 \times 10^{21} \cmt$. The CO observations suggest that $N_H = 2 N_{H_2} \sim 3.2 \times 10^{21} \cmt$ and 21cm measurements, also at $12″$ resolution, yield $N_\HI \approx 1.2 \times 10^{21} \cmt$ within the \CII\ velocity range. Thus, some H$_2$ not detected in CO must be present, in agreement with earlier findings based on the SPIRE 250 — 500 $\mu$m emission.

Comments: accepted in A&A
Subjects: Cosmology and Extragalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)
Cite as: arXiv:1207.3243v1 [astro-ph.CO]
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