Dust formation history of galaxies: a critical role of metallicity for the dust mass growth by accreting materials in the interstellar medium
This paper investigate what is the main driver of the dust mass growth in the interstellar medium (ISM) by using a chemical evolution model of galaxy with metals (elements heavier than helium) in dust phase in addition to the total amount of metals. We consider asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, type II supernovae (SNe II) and the dust mass growth in the ISM as the sources of dust, and SN shocks as the destruction mechanism of dust. Further, to describe the dust evolution precisely, our model takes into account the age and metallicity (the ratio of metal mass to ISM mass) dependence of the sources of dust. We particularly focused on the dust mass growth, and found that the dust mass growth in the ISM is regulated by the metallicity. To quantify this aspect, we introduce a "critical metallicity", which is a metallicity at which the contribution of stars (AGB stars and SNe II) equals that of the dust mass growth in the ISM. If the star formation timescale is shorter, the value of the critical metallicity is higher, but the galactic age at which the metallicity reaches the critical metallicity is shorter. From observations, it was expected that the dust mass growth was the dominant source of dust in the Milky Way and dusty QSOs at high redshifts. By introducing the critical metallicity, it is clearly shown that the dust mass growth is the main source of dust in such galaxies with various star formation timescales and ages. The dust mass growth in the ISM is regulated by metallicity, and we stress that the critical metallicity works as an indicator to judge whether the grain growth in the ISM is dominant source of dust in a galaxy, especially because of the strong and nonlinear dependence on the metallicity.
The star formation history and chemical evolution of star forming galaxies in the nearby universearXiv:1206.0928v1
We have determined the O/H and N/O of a sample of 122751 SFGs from the DR7 of the SDSS. For all these galaxies we have also determined their morphology and their SFH using the code STARLIGHT. The comparison of the chemical abundance with the SFH allows us to describe the chemical evolution in the nearby universe (z < 0.25) in a manner which is consistent with the formation of their stellar populations and morphologies. A 45% of the SFGs in our sample show an excess of abundance in nitrogen relative to their metallicity. We also find this excess to be accompanied by a deficiency of oxygen, which suggests that this could be the result of effective starburst winds. However, we find no difference in the mode of star formation of the nitrogen rich and nitrogen poor SFGs. Our analysis suggests they all form their stars through a succession of bursts of star formation extended over a few Gyr period. What produces the chemical differences between these galaxies seems therefore to be the intensity of the bursts: the galaxies with an excess of nitrogen are those that are presently experiencing more intense bursts, or have experienced more intense bursts in their past. We also find evidence relating the chemical evolution process to the formation of the galaxies: the galaxies with an excess of nitrogen are more massive, have more massive bulges and earlier morphologies than those showing no excess. As a possible explanation we propose that the lost of metals consistent with starburst winds took place during the formation of the galaxies, when their potential wells were still building up, and consequently were weaker than today, making starburst winds more efficient and independent of the final mass of the galaxies. In good agreement with this interpretation, we also find evidence consistent with downsizing, according to which the more massive SFGs formed before the less massive ones.